Dar, haber, hacer, and tener in expressions with a special meaning

These verbs appear frequently in idiomatic expressions. Many are formed with a conjugated verb + an infinitive, called formas perifrásticas or perífrasis verbales in Spanish.
Learn them as lexical (vocabulary) items.
Note the use of the present tense in the examples with dar, haber, hacer, and tener that follow.
Keep in mind that, in different contexts or surrounded by expressions of time referring to the past or the future, these idioms may also be used in other tenses.

◆ Dar
dar un abrazo -> to hug, embrace
Le da un abrazo a su amigo. – He hugs his friend.
dar gritos -> to shout, scream
La multitud da gritos. – The crowd screams.
dar la hora -> to strike the hour
El reloj da la una. – The clock strikes one.

◆ Haber
hay que + infinitive to be necessary (to express obligation) – have/has to or must

Hay que estudiar para aprender -> It is necessary to study in order to learn
Hay que tomar mucha agua -> we have to drink a lot of water
Hay que comer más verduras -> we must eat more vegetables

◆ Hacer in expressions that refer to weather conditions

hacer calor / hacer fresco -> to be hot / to be cool
Hace fresco, no hace calor. -> It is cool; it is not hot.
hacer un viaje -> to take a trip
Lina hace un viaje a las Bahamas. -> Lina takes a trip to the Bahamas.

◆ Hacer in other expressions

hacer una visita -> to pay a visit
Marcus hace una visita a su tío. -> Marcus visits his uncle.
hacer daño -> to harm, damage
Beber mucha agua no te hace daño. -> Drinking a lot of water does not harm you.
hacer caso a -> to notice, pay attention (to)
Los niños no hacen caso al maestro. -> The children do not pay attention to the teacher.
hacer el papel de -> to play the role of
El actor hace el papel de Hamlet. -> The actor plays the role of Hamlet.

◆ Tener
To express obligation with a conjugated verb, use the formula tener + que + infinitive. And other uses.

Tenemos que salir -> We must leave
Tienes que tomar más agua -> you have to drink more water
Tengo que hacer ejercicio -> I must do exercise
Tengo frío -> I am cold
¿Tienes hambre? -> Are you hungry?
No tienen miedo a las serpientes. -> They are not afraid of snakes.
Yo tengo razón. -> I am right.
¿Tienes sed? -> Are you thirsty?
Mi esposo tiene prisa. -> My husband is in a hurry.
tener la culpa (de) -> to be to blame (for)
El sospechoso tiene la culpa de este accidente. -> The suspect is to blame for this accident.
tener lugar -> to take place
La reunión tiene lugar los domingos. -> The meeting takes place on Sundays.

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